16 gauge is the most common gauge used in daith piercings (approximately 1.2mm thick). There are many exceptions, and your piercer may have chosen a different gauge for you. If you don't have the means to measure gauge at home, you'll have to inquire as to what gauge you were pierced with. Most daith piercings may accommodate a hoop with an inner diameter of 8mm (5/16") to 10mm (just over 38").
The gauge describes the thickness of the jewelry. This measurement is most likely given in millimeters. To accurately measure the gauge at home, you will need a caliper or a micrometer. You cannot accurately determine the thickness of your jewelry if you do not have either of these tools. The best you can do is estimate its thickness using a gauge card.
Since the increments between the gauges used for body jewelry are so modest, the gauge cannot be measured with a ruler. If you used a ruler, 18G, 16G, and 14G would all appear nearly identical. If you measured each gauge with a caliper, you would only know that 18G is approximately 1.0mm, 16G is approximately 1.2mm, and 14G is approximately 1.6mm.